Saturday, January 1, 2011

Great White Sharks

Structural Adaptations


·         Great White Sharks electroreceptor’s and lateral line canals in their head enable them to detect the electromagnetic field by the movement of living animals.

·         These species adapted to maintain a body temperature warmer than the surrounding water. They are able to do this with their sensory cells that contain multiple nerve fibres called the ampullae.



·         Great White Sharks jaws have a specimen more than 6.1 meters long that could exert a bite force over than 18,000 newtons.


·         These creatures have a sharp and sensitive sense of smell which lets them smell the smallest amount of blood in the water. They can smell the blood from a 5 km distance.

Behavioral Adaptations


·         The smaller and the younger the Great White Shark is, the greater chance it has of attacking something.


·         Great White Sharks learn to hunt in locations with the highest chance of a successful prey capture.


·         These sharks are known to usually lift their head above the sea surface to attack at an object or prey. This method is known as “spy hopping”.


·         Great White Sharks usually attack a couple hours after sunset when visibility is poor. The sunlight spots preys at the surface of the water. Particles suspended in the water scatter light creating a veil which hides the shark.  



Habitat and Conservation
1)      Great White Sharks and Whale Sharks.



Great White Sharks
These species are large lamniform sharks found in coastal surface waters in all major oceans. Great Whites are very well known for their size, with the largest individuals known to have approached or exceeded six meters in length and 2,268 kilograms in weight.


Whale Sharks
These creatures are slow moving filter feeding sharks and largest living fish species. The largest Whale Shark was 12.65 meters in length. The heaviest weighed more than 79,000 pounds.

2)      General habitat of Great Whites & Whale Sharks


Great White sharks
They live in almost all coastal and offshore waters which have water temperatures between 12 and 24 degrees Celsius. They live off the coast of Australia, South Africa, California, the Northeastern US, Japan, New Zealand and the waters of the Mediterranean. Great white Sharks have a broad niche. One of their niches is to hunt other small fishes and balance out all the populations of different species so they don’t get over populated and destroy the community.


Whale Sharks
The Whale shark inhabits all tropical and warm temperature seas. They migrate every spring to the central west coast of Australia. The whale Shark has a broad niche because it can live in many seas. One of the Whale sharks niche is to eat mostly phytoplankton, zooplankton, small squids, and krill. 

3)      Why Great White Sharks & Whale Sharks are endangered  


Great White Sharks
The Great White shark is endangered due to people killing them for food and trade. Human kill great white sharks to get their teeth and jaws for trading and their meat for pills. Many countries in Asia kill sharks to cut off their fins and use it for food. One pound of a shark fin can be worth 300 dollars or more. Approximately 100 million sharks are killed for their fins.


Whale Sharks
The whale shark is also endangered due to humans killing them for their meat and fins. One whale shark fin was valued at 10,000 dollars.  They are also endangered because of over fishing.

4)      Great Whites & Whale Sharks becoming extinct


Great White Sharks
Sharks control our ecosystem. If they get distinct, the whole balance of nature world be destroyed. Sea animal populations would become over populated, which would cause a huge disturbance to their life cycle.  




Whale Sharks
 The whale shark also controls the ecosystem. Also there would be an over reproduction of phytoplankton which would cause the red tide phenomenon at eastern shore line of California and many other oceans. Red tides kill many fish which would decrease their populations.
 
5)      Zoo habitat for Great White Sharks and Whale Sharks


Great Whites
Sharks are more likely to see in an aquarium than in a zoo. If they were in a zoo, they would need to be fed 5-7 times a day. Sharks would need to eat fish for their meals.


Whale Sharks
Whale sharks would need the same habitat as a great white shark. They would need more space to swim. Also they would need to be fed 10-12 a day. Whale sharks would need to eat plankton and plants for their meals.

Hammerhead Sharks


1)     Hammerhead sharks are active, surface living sharks. Their heads have lateral projections resembling the crossbar of a T, and its eyes and ears are located in the outer tips of the projections. These special species of sharks are in the family Sphyrnidae, so named for the unusual and distinctive structure of their heads. Many Hammerhead sharks are placed in genus Sphyrna, some companies place the wing head shark in its own genus, Eusphyra. Hammerhead sharks can be three to twenty feet long. The heaviest Hammerhead shark was weighed at 1280 pounds in Boca Grande in Florida, USA.  




2)     The Hammerhead shark is found in the temperate and tropical waters within forty degrees north to thirty seven degrees south latitude around the world. These sharks are the only type of sharks that swim in Canadian waters. Most Hammerhead sharks prefer to swim close to shore less than twenty meters deep. Hammerhead sharks are in the Western and Eastern North Atlantic Ocean and also live in the Indian Ocean. In the Western Atlantic Ocean, Hammerhead sharks live from Nova Scotia to Florida. They also live in Uruguay, Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean regions. In the Eastern Atlantic Ocean, Hammerhead sharks live through Morocco to Senegal and the Mediterranean Sea. Many Hammerhead sharks migrate in the summer and move to cooler waters. Hammerhead sharks have a broad niche. One of their niches is to hunt small fishes and balance out the population of different species so they don’t become over populated and destroy the community.




3)     The Hammerhead shark in endangered due to people killing them for food and trade. Many Hammerhead sharks are killed for their fins. Shark fins are used all across Asia to make special expensive soup. One Hammerhead fin can be worth more than 300 dollars. These species are also endangered due to overfishing. Many Hammerhead sharks get tangled up in nets which result to death because they can not breathe or escape. When people take them out of the net, they cut the fin off and throw the rest of the body back in the ocean.


4)      Sharks control our ecosystem. If they get distinct, the whole balance of nature would be destroyed. Sea animal populations would become over populated, which would cause a huge disturbance to their life cycle. 



5)     Hammerhead sharks are more likely to live in an aquarium then in a zoo. If they were to live in a zoo, they would need to have a lot of space for swimming. Also they would need to be fed four to six meals a day depending on the size of the fish. Sharks would need to eat fish for their meals.    


Referencing

For information

For images
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http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/whale-shark-1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://animals.howstuffworks.com/fish/whale-shark.htm/printable&usg=__6WJcibbdM-fIuF9kAaT-PuUosuw=&h=264&w=400&sz=32&hl=en&start=12&sig2=EYSo_KhmHvgXekOn49fuXQ&zoom=1&tbnid=G4HTGyaefxyQGM:&tbnh=146&tbnw=209&ei=UOJATZW-MsH7lweK3KCmAw&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dwhale%2Bshark%2Beating%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26rlz%3D1T4HPIA_enCA348CA348%26biw%3D1131%26bih%3D635%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C342&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=629&vpy=297&dur=329&hovh=182&hovw=276&tx=135&ty=70&oei=S-JATaiHIoHogQedoqn7Ag&esq=2&page=2&ndsp=14&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:12&biw=1131&bih=635

http://www.sharkinformation.org/great-white-shark/

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http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/01/81/9a/89/group-of-fish.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction_Review-g291963-d1526270-Reviews-Ragamuffin_Tours_Day_Tours-Caye_Caulker_Belize_Cayes.html&usg=__UXml3c0Kc1VFAbZl3H_aYjKxidw=&h=362&w=550&sz=26&hl=en&start=24&sig2=6UTQa8VnrOBhkRVYAPMUXQ&zoom=1&tbnid=qr0ml6UPM34bWM:&tbnh=104&tbnw=143&ei=NONATcTJB8H_lgffyJ2TAw&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgroup%2Bof%2Bfish%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26rlz%3D1T4HPIA_enCA348CA348%26biw%3D1131%26bih%3D635%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=110&oei=KeNATeOiHMnGgAfZva3nAg&esq=3&page=2&ndsp=25&ved=1t:429,r:9,s:24&tx=34&ty=57

http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_2ocv-MtVOk8/TSJHd1x8xQI/AAAAAAAAAbw/UUlt5mJChAc/s1600/dead%2Bfish.jpg&imgrefurl=http://first-news.blogspot.com/2011/01/like-horror-movie-100000-dead-fish-are.html&usg=__ciyWDOk7zD-F60kuV51teFHRltA=&h=684&w=1024&sz=1027&hl=en&start=0&sig2=EQ5iVyJdAFWg5MBlR9f9Gg&zoom=1&tbnid=xzNnDwLAweRiGM:&tbnh=143&tbnw=191&ei=WONATZHfNIe_gQePsuznAg&prev=/images%3Fq%3Ddead%2Bfish%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26rlz%3D1T4HPIA_enCA348CA348%26biw%3D1131%26bih%3D635%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=455&oei=WONATZHfNIe_gQePsuznAg&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0&tx=122&ty=67

http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://www.lifeinfreshwater.org.uk/Resource%2520Images/habitat/Red%2520Tide.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.lifeinfreshwater.org.uk/Web%2520pages/ponds/Pollution.htm&usg=__29r2ZIVOo3wpAPkqCFQz58zLiX8=&h=278&w=350&sz=17&hl=en&start=0&sig2=vmqeIIefFL2gbXLFJVgu9Q&zoom=1&tbnid=S8Sx_BgUKwfIKM:&tbnh=162&tbnw=203&ei=keNATYOXMIKglAeu-fSNAw&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dred%2Btides%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26rlz%3D1T4HPIA_enCA348CA348%26biw%3D1131%26bih%3D635%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=491&vpy=86&dur=78&hovh=200&hovw=252&tx=83&ty=108&oei=gONATbfQLJTUgQfrhKzWAg&esq=7&page=1&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0

http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://images.smh.com.au/2009/05/22/536497/Dubai-Mall-Sharks-420x0.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.smh.com.au/travel/travel-news/dubais-sharkdiving-mall-takes-shopping-to-new-depths-20090520-bf3a.html&usg=__Aik1HhLJaQ2vPIVjIJRN-hFAOA4=&h=308&w=420&sz=29&hl=en&start=0&sig2=HE0ACgN9kpOIeRwUaEbbYQ&zoom=1&tbnid=c67i0eWHZJgRYM:&tbnh=152&tbnw=216&ei=DuRATZWoCcGclgeChqSyAw&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsharks%2Bin%2Ba%2Bzoo%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26rlz%3D1T4HPIA_enCA348CA348%26biw%3D1131%26bih%3D635%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=599&vpy=88&dur=203&hovh=192&hovw=262&tx=120&ty=119&oei=BuRATd6kApPqgQf8tZniAg&esq=3&page=1&ndsp=13&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0

http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://dsc.discovery.com/sharks/shark-pictures/images/whale-shark-aquarium.jpg&imgrefurl=http://dsc.discovery.com/sharks/shark-pictures/whale-shark-aquarium.html&usg=__bgFAdst0QSxREIkPZ6U4LWqXh4I=&h=450&w=625&sz=227&hl=en&start=0&sig2=GW5r9kt5-PyWQor-moUdyQ&zoom=1&tbnid=-BDNKd9mYNWLiM:&tbnh=153&tbnw=202&ei=LORATaa5GtTogAej4ennAg&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dwhale%2Bsharks%2Bin%2Ban%2Baquarium%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26rlz%3D1T4HPIA_enCA348CA348%26biw%3D1131%26bih%3D635%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=251&vpy=122&dur=1394&hovh=190&hovw=265&tx=125&ty=105&oei=LORATaa5GtTogAej4ennAg&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0